Emission Standards - Heavy-Duty Truck and Bus Engines Applicability and Test Cycles
The following emission standards apply to new diesel engines used in heavy-duty highway vehicles. The current federal definition of a compression-ignition (diesel) engine is based on the engine cycle, rather than the ignition mechanism, with the presence of a throttle as an indicator to distinguish between diesel-cycle and otto-cycle operation. Regulating power by controlling the fuel supply in lieu of a throttle corresponds with lean combustion and the diesel-cycle operation (this allows the possibility that a natural gas-fueled engine equipped with a sparkplug is considered a compression-ignition engine).
Heavy-duty vehicles are defined as vehicles of GVWR (gross vehicle weight rating) of above 8,500 lbs in the federal jurisdiction and above 14,000 lbs in California (model year 1995 and later). Diesel engines used in heavy-duty vehicles are further divided into service classes by GVWR, as follows.
• Light heavy-duty diesel engines: 8,500 < LHDDE < 19,500 (14,000 < LHDDE < 19,500 in California, 1995+)
• Medium heavy-duty diesel engines: 19,500 ≤ MHDDE ≤ 33,000
• Heavy heavy-duty diesel engines (including urban bus): HHDDE > 33,000
Under the federal light-duty Tier 2 regulation (phased-in beginning 2004) vehicles of GVWR up to 10,000 lbs used for personal transportation have been re-classified as “medium-duty passenger vehicles” (MDPV - primarily larger SUVs and passenger vans) and are subject to the light-duty vehicle legislation. Therefore, the same diesel engine model used for the 8,500 - 10,000 lbs vehicle category may be classified as either light- or heavy-duty and certified to different standards, depending on the application.
Current federal regulations do not require that complete heavy-duty diesel vehicles be chassis certified, instead requiring certification of their engines (as an option, complete heavy-duty diesel vehicles under 14,000 lbs can be chassis certified). Consequently, the basic standards are expressed in g/bhp·hr and require emission testing over the Transient FTP engine dynamometer cycle (however, chassis certification may be required for complete heavy-duty gasoline vehicles with pertinent emission standards expressed in g/mile).
Additional emission testing requirements, first introduced in 1998, include the following:
• Supplemental Emission Test (SET)
• Not-to-Exceed (NTE) limits
These tests were introduced for most signees of the 1998 Consent Decrees between the EPA and engine manufacturers for the period 1998 - 2004. Federal regulations require the supplemental testing from all engine manufacturers effective 2007. In California, the tests are required for all engines effective model year 2005.
The SET is a 13-mode steady-state test that was introduced to help ensure that heavy-duty engine emissions are controlled during steady-state type driving, such as a line-haul truck operating on a freeway. The test is based on the EU 13-mode ESC schedule (in the US commonly referred to as the “Euro III” cycle).
The NTE limits have been introduced as an additional instrument to make sure that heavy-duty engine emissions are controlled over the full range of speed and load combinations commonly experienced in use. The NTE approach establishes an area (the “NTE zone”) under the torque curve of an engine where emissions must not exceed a specified value for any of the regulated pollutants.
The NTE test procedure does not involve a specific driving cycle of any specific length (mileage or time). Rather it involves driving of any type that could occur within the bounds of the NTE control area, including operation under steady-state or transient conditions and under varying ambient conditions. Emissions are averaged over a minimum time of thirty seconds and then compared to the applicable NTE emission limits.